Predicting Probable Number of Escherichia Coli from pH, Temperature and Turbidity to Indicate Water Quality in Gezira State, Sudan


  • Etigani Abdelgalil Water management and Irrigation Institute (WMII), University of Gezira, P.O Box 20,Wadmedani, Sudan
  • Ahmed Mohamedani National Blue Nile Institute of Communicable Diseases (NBNICD), University of Gezira P.O Box 20, Wadmedani, Sudan
  • Gafar Adam Water management and Irrigation Institute (WMII), University of Gezira, P.O Box 20,Wadmedani, Sudan


Prediction, Water quality, E. coli, Gezira state, Sudan


Predicting water quality is crucial for distinguishing safe and unsafe water in under-equipped laboratory settings, especially in developing countries. In this study, we utilized a linear regression model to predict the probable number of Escherichia coli (E. coli) based on water temperature, pH and turbidity. The analysis was conducted on 185 water samples collected from diverse sources such as surface water and groundwater in Gezira state, Sudan. The biological quality of the water was assessed using a compartmental bag test (CBT), with the possible number of E. coli serving as an indicator of water quality. The findings indicate that 58.3% of water sources are deemed safe, 16.8% categorized as intermediate risk/probably safe, 16.2 were probably unsafe and 22.2% are considered unsafe. The regression model effectively processed the measured values and demonstrated a high level of prediction accuracy. Furthermore, the turbidity significantly contributed to the prediction (p < .005).


. Sobsey, M., Managing water in the home. 2002.

. Stauber, C., et al., Evaluation of the compartment bag test for the detection of Escherichia coli in water. Journal of microbiological methods, 2014. 99: p. 66-70.

. Watson, S.B. and J. Lawrence, Overview-Drinking water quality and sustainability. Water Quality Research Journal, 2003. 38(1): p. 3-13.

. Organization, W.H., Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2017: special focus on inequalities. 2019: World Health Organization.

. Adesiyun, A., et al., Studies on well water and possible health risks in Katsina, Nigeria. Epidemiology & Infection, 1983. 90(2): p. 199-205.

. Budnick, G.E., R.T. Howard, and D.R. Mayo, Evaluation of Enterolert for enumeration of enterococci in recreational waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1996. 62(10): p. 3881-3884.

. Whitehead, P.G., et al., A review of the potential impacts of climate change on surface water quality. Hydrological sciences journal, 2009. 54(1): p. 101-123.

. Zlatanovi?, L., J.P. van der Hoek, and J. Vreeburg, An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system. Water research, 2017. 123: p. 761-772.

. Prommer, H. and P.J. Stuyfzand, Identification of temperature-dependent water quality changes during a deep well injection experiment in a pyritic aquifer. Environmental Science & Technology, 2005. 39(7): p. 2200-2209.

. Ducharne, A., Importance of stream temperature to climate change impact on water quality. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2008. 12(3): p. 797-810.

. Ashwini, K., J. Vedha, and M. Priya, Intelligent model for predicting water quality. Int. J. Adv. Res. Ideas Innov. Technol. ISSN, 2019. 5(2): p. 70-75.

. Huang, J., et al., A novel framework to predict water turbidity using Bayesian modeling. Water Research, 2021. 202: p. 117406.

. Musa, H.A., et al., Water quality and public health in northern Sudan: a study of rural and peri?urban communities. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 1999. 87(5): p. 676-682.

. Ell-Amin, A.M., A.M.E. Sulieman, and E.A. El-Khalifa. Quality characteristics of drinking water in Khartoum state and Wad-Medani District, Sudan. in 14th international water technology conference, IWTC. 2010. Citeseer.

. El Karim, M.A., B. El Hassan, and K. Hussein, Social and public health implication of water supply in arid zones in the Sudan. Social Science & Medicine, 1985. 20(4): p. 393-398.

. Abdelrahman, A.A. and Y.M. Eltahir, Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 2011. 175: p. 37-43.

. Abdelgalili, E.B., et al., Water source quality testing in Gezira State, Sudan, using the compartment bag test. Applied Water Science, 2019. 9(8): p. 1-8.

. Edam, W. and E.E. Abdelgalil, Seasonal quality of water sources indicated by Escherichia coli: a case of Elobied, North Kordofan state, Sudan. Applied Water Science, 2022. 12(3): p. 50.

. El Sidieg, M. and E.E. Abdelgalil, Tracking Water Quality from Source to Home: A showed Case of El Gorashi Locality, Gezira State, Sudan. Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2022. 15(2): p. 36-41.

. Li, Y. and X. Li, Research on water distribution systems from the past to the future: a bibliometric review. Environmental Technology Reviews, 2021. 10(1): p. 161-176.

. Uddin, M.G., et al., A sophisticated model for rating water quality. Science of the Total Environment, 2023. 868: p. 161614.

. Elias, E., A. Salih, and F. Alaily, Cracking patterns in the Vertisols of the Sudan Gezira at the end of dry season. International agrophysics, 2001. 15(3).

. Magboul, A., et al., Assessment of Climate Change and Variability in Butana Region, Sudan. Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, 2015. 3(1): p. 1-8.

. Abdel Rahman, A.M. and M.E. Hamid, Assessment of awareness and adaptation to climate change among rainfed farmers in Um Alqora Locality, Gezira State, Sudan. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems (IJASRT in EES), 2013. 3(3): p. 133-138.

. Supply, W.U.J.W. and S.M. Programme, Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2014 Update. 2014: World Health Organization.

. García-Ávila, F., et al., A comparative study of water quality using two quality indices and a risk index in a drinking water distribution network. Environmental Technology Reviews, 2022. 11(1): p. 49-61.

. Edition, F., Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO chronicle, 2011. 38(4): p. 104-8.

. Nascimento Santos, N.G., et al., Water quality monitoring in southern Brazil and the assessment of risk factors related to contamination by coliforms and Escherichia coli. Journal of Water and Health, 2023. 21(10): p. 1550-1561.

. Daniel, D., et al., Assessing drinking water quality at the point of collection and within household storage containers in the hilly rural areas of mid and far-western Nepal. International journal of environmental research and public health, 2020. 17(7): p. 2172.

. Loi, J.X., et al., Water quality assessment and pollution threat to safe water supply for three river basins in Malaysia. Science of The Total Environment, 2022. 832: p. 155067.

. Abdo, G. and A. Salih, Challenges facing groundwater management in Sudan. 2012.




How to Cite

Etigani Abdelgalil, Ahmed Mohamedani, & Gafar Adam. (2024). Predicting Probable Number of Escherichia Coli from pH, Temperature and Turbidity to Indicate Water Quality in Gezira State, Sudan. International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends, 20(1), 91–102. Retrieved from