International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends (IJSSCFRT) is an open access International Journal for scientists and researchers to publish their scientific papers in Social Sciences related fields. IJSSCFRT plays its role as a refereed international journal to publish research results conducted by researchers.</p> <p>This journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double&nbsp;peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">All IJSSCFRT published papers in Social Sciences will be available for scientific readers for free; no fees are required to download published papers in this international journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) en-US International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright_Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms.</a></p> The Effect of Umurenge Saving and Credit Cooperatives Services on Poverty Reduction in Rwanda The Case of Icyerekezo Mushishiro Sacco (2015-2019) in Muhanga District <p>This study was conducted for achieving these specific objectives; To assess how regular saving deposits services received by Icyerekezo Mushishiro Sacco contribute to poverty reduction of its members, to analyse the effect of credits services provided by Icyerekezo Mushishiro Sacco on poverty reduction of its members, and to analyse if financial advisory services given by Icyerekezo Mushishiro Sacco makes changes on poverty reduction of its members. The targeted population was 3482 active members of Sacco from which a sample of 359 members was randomly selected. In this study, quantitative and qualitative approaches were used where primary data was obtained by the use of questionnaires, interviews, and documentation for secondary data. The analysis of data was done via SPSS. &nbsp;The findings revealed that 94.7% have a current account where they deposit and withdraw at any time, few from them 4.2 % have a saving account and 1.1% for children. These accounts helped them to accumulated money for different use. The members requested loans and used them in different activities which helped them to fight against poverty. The advisory services provided by Sacco have interacted on poverty reduction as confirmed by respondents. From these findings, the researcher concluded that Umurenge Sacco positively contribute on the poverty reduction of the population in Rwanda. The study recommends that Sacco should reinforce saving education and help every member access financial services especially youth,the members are recommended to continue increasing their saving to enable Sacco to have enough capacity to serve all efficiently. Also, the government of Rwanda is recommended to help Sacco to have IT infrastructure.</p> Kayiranga Felix Elijah Kihooto Maringa Mutabazi Placide Copyright (c) 2022 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2022-01-08 2022-01-08 13 1 1 12 Diffuse Hyperlymphocytosis cd8 Syndrome Initially Mistaken for Sarcoidosis <p>The syndrome of hyperlymphocytosis CD8 associated with HIV or "diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome" (DILS) is a rarer pathology since the introduction of triple therapy. We report a new case of DILS taken initially for sarcoidosis. It was Miss A M 40 years old smoking weaned for 3 months; Followed in ophthalmology for panuvéite for 5 years under prednisone 1 mg / kg. This treatment was irregularly taken by the patient. At admission, she had a dry oculo-buccal syndrome, superficial polyadenopathy, sub-diaphragmatic superficial polyadenopathy, symmetrical bilateral parotidomalgia with pear-like appearance, asymmetrical bilateral crepitis in the pulmonary bases. Examination of the integuments found onyxis. The electrocardiogram was normal. Chest X-ray revealed an interstitial syndrome. Thoracic CT scan showed bilateral micronodular pulmonary images with lymph nodes in the upper non-compressive mediastinum and foci of lower lobar fibrosis. Bronchial biopsies showed non-specific inflammatory rearrangement. The alveolar broncho lavage found a lymphocytic alveolitis predominantly composed of CD8 T cells. The ophthalmological examination found sequelae lesions of panuvéite. Blood lymphocyte phenotyping found 161 CD4 / mm3 and 1855 CD8 / mm3 (CD4 / CD8 ratio = 0.086 [N&gt; 0.68]). Investigations of a bacterial infection with benign or specific germs were negative. However, HIV1 serology was positive. The viral load was 110 copies / ml. The biopsy of a cervical adenopathy found a florid follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. The salivary gland biopsy showed lymphoplasmocytic infiltration of viral origin. A diagnosis of DILS was made and antiviral treatment was prescribed as well as corticosteroid therapy. CD8 hyperlymphocytosis decreased after 4 weeks of treatment. HIV-associated CD8 hyperlymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is a rare entity, but should be systematically discussed in the presence of parotidomgalia and / or other organ damage associated with polyclonal CD8 lymphocytosis.</p> Fall B. C Dieng M Gaye A Niang D Sall A Diaw B Fall A Salane A Djiba B Kane B. S Sow M Ndao A. C Ndour M. A Diagne N Fall S Pouye A Ndongo S Copyright (c) 2022 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2022-01-08 2022-01-08 13 1 13 18 Meranaw Traditional Weapons and Warfare and their Relevance <p>Ibrahim, noralia u., “meranaw weapons and warfare: its relevance to the decades of conflict in mindanao<strong>.” </strong>A Masteral Thesis, Master of History, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mindanao State University, Marawi, 2018. The study was an attempt by the researcher to document the traditional weapons used by the Meranaws in their historic warfare with western invaders starting with the Spanish conquerors up to the Americans. The Meranaw weapons were the focus of the study as well as their warfare, and the researcher was thankful to the existing write-ups about this subject in both the Spanish and especially American periods. Though the information given was lacking and scant, it was enough to discern that western conquerors were impressed with the weaponry of the Moros of Mindanao and the Meranaws in particular. The greater portion then of this paper devotes itself to the detailed documentation of the various Meranaw weapons which were significantly useful in the battles of Marawi in 1895 and up to the early years of the Americans in the country. Also included in the study was the discovery and analysis of these traditional weapons’ origin, features and purposes or relevance. Most importantly, the researcher attempted to find out the utmost relevance of these various weapons in those decades of conflict in the history of Mindanao especially of Lanao. Some of the findings of this study showed that the Meranaw weapons were not so different from the weapons utilized by other Moro groups like the Tausug and Maguindanao. Moreover, these kinds of weapons possessed by the Meranaws significantly enabled the Moro resistance particularly the Meranaw resistance to Spanish conquest for centuries and which consequently gave the Americans the hardest times in colonizing them. Of all natives of the Philippines, the Moros like the Meranaws surprised the invaders, in those chaotic times of conquest, by being equipped with the necessary and basic items in fighting and for defence. Their most popular weapons were the swords like the <em>Sundang</em> and the <em>Kampilan. </em>They were also outfitted with the mighty <em>Lantakas </em>and firearms that met the Spaniards on equal grounds and challenged the Americans. It also found out that the weapons by the Meranaws were not only part of warfare but definitely a reflection of the people’s way of life centuries ago.The study intends to be useful and contribute in understanding a portion of Meranaw history and culture.</p> <p>At the end of this paper, it appeared that the Meranaws were the most well-armed group among the Moros at the times of western conquest and the production of these mentioned types of weapons could just be one of the enduring contributions of the Meranaws in Moro history and culture. And as one recommendation, it was only right for the government to take actions in protection and retrieval of this kinds of artifacts which were not only important to the Meranaws but to the whole country itself.</p> Noralia Usman Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2022-01-17 2022-01-17 13 1 19 50