International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends (IJSSCFRT) is an open access International Journal for scientists and researchers to publish their scientific papers in Social Sciences related fields. IJSSCFRT plays its role as a refereed international journal to publish research results conducted by researchers.</p> <p>This journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process within 4 weeks. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">All IJSSCFRT published papers in Social Sciences will be available for scientific readers for free; no fees are required to download published papers in this international journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> Mohammad Nassar for Researches (MNFR) en-US International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2790-3990 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright_Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms.</a></p> The Mystery of Gravity & The phantom of Dark Energy are Explained by a Hidden Dimension of Time & Undiscovered Fundamental Force in Nature <p> </p> <p>The Standard Model of physics explains three of the four fundamental forces that govern the universe: electromagnetism, strong force, and weak force, but it lacks the fourth fundamental force which is gravity. The rapid acceleration of the expansion of the universe indicates that our understanding of gravity as a force between two masses or as a result of the curvature of spacetime caused by a mass is incomplete. Some theorists suggest that a particle called graviton is the carrier for the force of gravity. Unlike the carriers for the other three fundamental forces in nature, the graviton, has never been found experimentally at the large hydron collider in CERN laboratory, which raise the question is gravity a real fundamental force in nature, or it could be a force that result from the interaction between two fundamental forces in nature &amp; one of them has not been discovered yet. Here, we show that we live in a universe with more than one dimension of time where the universe generates a linear time dimension from an energy that results from subatomic particles interactions. This novel interaction at subatomic particles also generates undiscovered fundamental force that interacts with electromagnetism to generate gravity. This undiscovered fundamental force along with a hidden dimension of time in the universe explains the rapid acceleration of the expansion of the universe, or what is known as dark energy.</p> Ramzi A. Almohammadi, MD Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2024-05-26 2024-05-26 21 1 13 25 A Survey on Legionnaires Disease and Benefits of Using IoT and Artificial Intelligence for Control Measure <p>In this paper, we summarized Legionella, its outbreaks, detection techniques, compliance, and traditional control measures. We proposed the benefits of using a Remote temperature monitoring and tap flushing system that can be implemented with the help of Internet of Things (IOT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Legionella bacteria is usually found in all types of water systems and soil. Humans are affected by breathing Aerosols from the infected sources. Figure 2 shows the major sources of Legionella and its routes to human exposure. It is asymptomatic in most individuals but can cause Pontiac fever, Legionnaires disease and can lead to severe Pneumonia. People with weak immune systems, the old aged and smokers are most susceptible to legionaries' disease. There are no distinct symptoms for legionnaires disease, so it is unnoticed or neglected most of the time. Legionellaceae family consists of more than 50 species of which Legionella Pneumophila is the most common serogroup which causes Legionnaires disease. Temperature between 20°C to 50°C is most suitable for its growth. Artificial water systems like water tanks, Domestic water distribution systems, Spa pools, Cooling towers are some of the major sources of legionella. Legionella bacteria grows on Biofilms and stagnant water in supply pipes and water systems. There is detailed guidance and legislation to maintain these systems to prevent legionella outbreaks. A remote temperature monitoring and a remote outlet flushing solution can help the legionella organizations to keep the water systems compliant and safe from Legionella. A sensor network for remote monitoring of water temperatures and initiating outlet flushes can help reduce the manual efforts.</p> Preetham Reddy Kommula Abdel Hamid Soliman Euan Wilson Lizzie Ward Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2024-06-02 2024-06-02 21 1 26 46 Predicting Probable Number of Escherichia Coli from pH, Temperature and Turbidity to Indicate Water Quality in Gezira State, Sudan <p>Predicting water quality is crucial for distinguishing safe and unsafe water in under-equipped laboratory settings, especially in developing countries. In this study, we utilized a linear regression model to predict the probable number of Escherichia coli (E. coli) based on water temperature, pH and turbidity. The analysis was conducted on 185 water samples collected from diverse sources such as surface water and groundwater in Gezira state, Sudan. The biological quality of the water was assessed using a compartmental bag test (CBT), with the possible number of E. coli serving as an indicator of water quality. The findings indicate that 58.3% of water sources are deemed safe, 16.8% categorized as intermediate risk/probably safe, 16.2 were probably unsafe and 22.2% are considered unsafe. The regression model effectively processed the measured values and demonstrated a high level of prediction accuracy. Furthermore, the turbidity significantly contributed to the prediction (p &lt; .005).</p> Etigani Abdelgalil Ahmed Mohamedani Gafar Adam Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 21 1 1 12