Emotional Quotient and Leadership Behaviors Among Nurse Managers in a Government Hospital


  • Arlene G. Vecino Southwestern University PHINMA, Urgello St., Cebu City, 6000, Philippines
  • Adriel Arman V. Pizarra Southwestern University PHINMA, Urgello St., Cebu City, 6000, Philippines


Descriptive correlational design, Emotional quotient, Leadership behaviors, Nurse managers


Improving the integration of safe, effective, and high-quality care requires good nursing leadership. On the other hand, emotional intelligence enhances communication so that nurses can manage conflict more successfully. This quantitative research utilized the descriptive correlational research design to assess the interrelationship among profile, emotional quotient, and leadership behaviors of nurse managers of a government hospital in Cebu Province for the first quarter of 2022. Findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents were aged 31 to 40 years old and majority of the respondents were females. Most of the respondents were single and majority of them have a bachelor’s degree. Most of the respondents were assigned in the OB-Gyne Ward and most of them served as a nurse manager for 4 to 7 years already. Lastly, most of them have 201 to 250 hours of related seminars and trainings attended. The emotional quotient of the respondents was good. There was a good level of personal and social competence among the respondents. Overall the leadership behavior of the nurse managers was low. Specifically, the leadership behaviors of tolerance of uncertainty, persuasiveness, and production emphasis were moderate while representation, demand reconciliation, initiation of structure, tolerance and freedom, role assumption, consideration, predictive accuracy, integration, and superior orientation were low. The profile of the respondents was not significantly correlated with the emotional quotient and leadership behavior. Emotional quotient was significantly correlated with leadership behavior.


Admin Upraise, S. (2018). Why it’s important to cultivate Emotional Quotient (EQ) in the workplace.

https://upraise.io/blog/emotional-quotient-eq-workplace/#:~:text=Emotional%20Quotient%20is%20 primarily%20your,your%20level%20of%20emotional%20intelligence.

Akbiyik, A., Akin Korhan, E., Kiray, S., & Kirsan, M. (2020). The effect of nurses' leadership behavior on the quality of nursing care and patient outcomes. Research Article in Creative Nursing, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.1891/1078-4535.26.1.e8.

Alenazi, F., Muenjohn, N., & Mcmurray, A. (2017). The effect of demographic characteristics on leadership behaviour. World Journal of Management, 8, 15-31. https://doi.org/10.21102/wjm.2017.03.81.02.

Antonakis, J. (2004). On why “emotional intelligence” will not predict leadership effectiveness beyond IQ or the “Big Five”. An extension and rejoinder. Organizational Analysis, 12, 171-182.

Ashkanasy, N., & Daus, C. (2005). Rumors of the death of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior are greatly exaggerated. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 441-452.

Baba, M. M. (2020). Emotional intelligence and personal demographic profile in the education system of India. Global Business Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150920942986.

Barling, J., Slater, F., & Kelloway, E. K. (2000) Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence:

An exploratory study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 21, 157-161.

Bass, B. M. (2002). Cognitive, social and emotional intelligence of transformational leaders. Multiple Intelligences and Leadership, 105-118.

Bhandari, P. (2021). Correlational research. When and how to use it. https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/


Bikmoradi, A., Abdi, F., Hamidi, Y., Soltanian, A., Torabi, Y., & Farahmandmoqadam, N. (2018). Correlation between emotional intelligence and leadership style of nursing managers in educational hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Revista Publicando, 5(1), 190-198.

Cherniss, C., & Goleman, D, (2001). The emotionally intelligent workplace. Jossey – Bass.

Craven, A., & Kao, T.-Y. (2011). The relationship between leadership style & demographic sharacteristics of Taiwanese Executives. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 5. https://doi.org/10.19030/iber.v5i2.3456.

Cummings, G., Hayduk, L., & Estabrooks, C. (2005). Mitigating the impact of hospital restructuring on nurses: The responsibility of emotionally intelligent leadership. Nursing Research, 54(1), 2–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200501000-00002.

Demirhan, B. S., Gezginci, E., & Goktas, S. (2020). The effect of leadership behaviours of nurse managers on nurses’ work motivation. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 13(1), 381 – 391.

Gifford, W. A., Squires, J. E., Angus, D. E., , Ashley, L. A., Brosseau, L., Craik, J. M., Domecq, M.-C., Egan, M., Holyoke, P., Juergensen, L., Wallin, L., Wazni, L., & Graham, I. D. (2018). Managerial leadership for research use in nursing and allied health care professions: a systematic review. Implementation Science, 13, 127. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0817-7.

Grossman, S., & Valiga, T. (2009). The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of nursing. 3rd ed. FA Davis.

Harms, P. D., & Crede, M. (2010) Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(1), 5-17.

Jonesa, S. K., & Bekhet, K. A. (2015). Leadership styles and personal demographic profile: An empirical study on private business organizations in Egypt. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 20(2), 127-147.

Kleinman, C. (2004). The relationship between managerial leadership behaviors and staff nurse retention. Hospital Topics, 82(4), 2-9. https://doi.org/10.3200/HTPS.82.4.2-9.

Li, X., Chang, H., Zhang, Q., Yang, J., Liu, R., & Song, Y. (2021). Relationship between emotional intelligence and job well-being in Chinese clinical nurses: multiple mediating effects of empathy and communication satisfaction. BMC Nursing, 20, 144. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00658-4

Littrell, R. F.; Ahmadi, Y.; Dalati, S.; Kuskova, V. V., & Snaebjornsson, I.M. (2016). Validity testing of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire XII for use across national cultures. Centre for Cross Cultural Comparisons Working Paper. http://crossculturalcentre.homestead.com/WorkingPapers.html. [22] Mandell, B., & Phevwani, S. (2003) Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Style: A gender comparison. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(3), 387-404.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In: Sternberg, R. J., editor. Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press, 396–420.

McCombes, S. (2020). Descriptive research design. Definition, methods and examples.https://www.


Mulholland, B. (2019). Behavioral Theory of Leadership: How to be a better leader. https://www.process.st/behavioral-theory-of-leadership/.

Narong, D. K. (2015). The relationship between leaders’ emotional intelligence and their perceived leadership effectiveness. [Dissertation, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts]. https://repository.library.northeastern.edu/files/neu%3Acj82mx46w/fulltext.pdf [27] Noquez, A. (2019). Emotional intelligence in nurses and emerging trends: An integrative literature review. International Journal of Nursing, 6(1), 12-18. https://doi.org/ 10.15640/ijn.v6n1a2.

Phillips, J., Palokas, M., Christian, R., Harris, J., & Hinton, E. (2021). Emotional intelligence in nurse managers as it relates to staff nurse job satisfaction and retention: a scoping review. JBI Evidence Synthesis, 19(12), 3238–3267. https://doi.org/10.11124/JBIES-20-00299.

Pooja, P., & Kumar, P. (2016). Demographic variables and its effect on emotional intelligence: A study on Indian service sector employees. Annals of Neuroscience, 23, 18-24. https://doi.org/10.1159/000443552.

Prezerakos, P. E. (2018).Nurse managers’ emotional intelligence and effective leadership: A review of the current evidence. Open Nursing Journal, 12, 86–92. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874434601812010086.

Prufeta, P. (2017). Emotional Intelligence of nurse managers: An exploratory study. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 47(3), 134-139. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000455.

Segal, J., Smith, M., Robinson, L., & Shubin, J. (2021). Improving emotional intelligence (EQ). https://www.helpguide.org/articles/mental-health/emotional-intelligence-eq-htm.

Sellgren, S. F., Ekvall, G., & Tomson, G. (2008). Leadership behaviour of nurse managers in relation to job satisfaction and work climate. Journal Nursing Management, 16(5), 578-87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2934.2007.00837.x.

Skinner, C., & Spurgeon, P. (2005). Valuing empathy and emotional intelligence in health leadership: A study of empathy, leadership behaviour and outcome effectiveness. Health Service and Management Research, 18(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1258/0951484053051924.

Stami, T., Ritin, F., & Dominique, P. (2018). Demographic predictors of emotional intelligence among radiation therapists. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences, 65(2), 114–122. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.277.

Tengku Muda, T. E. A. B., & Adelib, A. H. B. (2019). Emotional intelligence (EI), adjustment and academic performance among Asasipinta students. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences. https://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.04.02.69.

Tyczkowski, B., Vandenhouten, C., Reilly, J., Bansal, G., Kubsch, S. M., & Jakkola, R. (2015). Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 39(2), 172-80. doi: 10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000094.

Turner, B. (2010). A study of the emotional quotient of nursing managers compared to the outcome of an employee opinion survey. Theses and Dissertations, 76. https://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/etd/76

Ugoani, J. N. N., Amu, C. U., & Kalu, E. O. (2015). Dimensions of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership: A correlation analysis. International Journal of Management Practice. http://www.ijmp.jor.br/index.php/ijmp/article/view/278/457.

Wallbridge, A. (2021). Daniel Goleman's Emotional Intelligence in Leadership: How to improve motivation in your team. https://www.tsw.co.uk/blog/leadership-and-management/daniel-goleman-emotional-intelligence/#:~:text=Daniel%20Goleman's%20emotional%20intelligence%20theory,happier%20and%20healthier%20working%20culture

Zaki, S., Anwar, R., & Khan, M. (2013). Exploring the relationship between Emotional Quotient (EQ) and teaching success of university teachers. Journal of Independent Studies and Research - Management, Social Sciences and Economics [JISR-MSSE], 11(2), 83-100. https://doi.org/10.31384/jisrmsse/2013.11.2.6.




How to Cite

Vecino, A. G., & Pizarra, A. A. V. (2023). Emotional Quotient and Leadership Behaviors Among Nurse Managers in a Government Hospital. International Journal of Applied Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends, 18(1), 1–41. Retrieved from https://ijascfrtjournal.isrra.org/index.php/Applied_Sciences_Journal/article/view/1346