Ketogenic Diet Practices for Weight Management and Health Outcomes
ketogenic diets or very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) have been in use long time ago as treatment for epilepsy and thereafter being become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine the efficacy of ketogenic diet in weight reduction program and also point out the health outcome and blood biochemical changes during time of dieting. A cross sectional study was carried out in 100 participants used ketogenic diet for their weight management from week 1 to approximately week 13 (29 male and 71 female) with those regard less their body mass index but with ages 32.48 ± 2.27, respectively. Pre-design questionnaire was used and data were analyzed by paired Student's t test or chi-square accordingly. There were no significant changes in liver and renal function test, potassium ALT, AST, and blood creatinine except slightly decreased in sodium and increased acetone . The significant (P < 0.05) reduction in BMI (32.45 Kg/m2 to 27.4 Kg/m2), body weight (94.0 kg to 78.9 Kg) have been found. Furthermore, the total weight loss found significant (19%) by which repsresent by 15 kg. Waist circumference and waist hip ratio were improved. The result also shown significant increased platelet count (P< 0.05). All lipid profile shown normal except slightly increased in LDL.The three significant top food were mostly consumed meat, chicken and eggs (P< 0.05). Although, there was some minor side effect reported by the participant include constipation, bad breathing and lack of appetite and no other clinical signs reported. The more weight reduction has been shown in age groups 20-30 years old (20 kg) (P< 0.05) during time of dieting. No differences in weight reduction among male and female. The ketogenic diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in a number of risk markers included cardiovascular events and showed good compliance. Furthermore, ketogenic diet considered safe, an effective strategy for the management of overweight and obesity and promoting non-atherogenic lipid profiles, improving fasting blood glucose levels. Future research should include a larger sample size, a longer term use and a comparison with other ketogenic diets.
. Veech RL. The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: The effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004; 70: 309–319.
. Owen OE, Morgan AP, Kemp HG, Sullivan JM, Herrera MG, Cahill Jr GF. Brain metabolism during fasting. J Clin Invest 1967; 46: 1589–1595.
. Atkins RC. Dr Atkins’ Diet Revolution: The High Calorie Way to Stay Thin Forever. D.McKay Co: New York, NY, USA, 1972.
. Kessler SK, Neal EG, Camfield CS, Kossoff EH. Dietary therapies for epilepsy:future research. Epilepsy Behav 2011; 22: 17–22.
. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA. Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004; 70: 243–251.
. Blair O'Neilla,b,c, Paolo Raggia. The ketogenic diet: Pros and cons. Atherosclerosis.2020.292:119–126.
. Z. Harcombe, J.S. Baker, S.M. Cooper, B. Davies, N. Sculthorpe, J.J. DiNicolantonio, F. Grace, Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Open Heart.2015.2.1-12.
. Delbridge, E.; Proietto, J. State of the science: VLED (Very Low Energy Diet) for obesity. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr.2006, 15 Suppl., 49–54.
. Cliff J. d. C. Harvey, Grant M. Schofield, Caryn Zinn, Simon J. Thornley, Catherine Crofts and Fabrice
. L. R. Merie. Low-carbohydrate diets differing in carbohydrate restriction improve cardiometabolic and anthropometric markers in healthy adults: A randomized clinical trial. PeerJ 7:e6273
. Maria Perticone , Ra_aele Maio , Angela Sciacqua , Edoardo Suraci , Angelina Pinto, Roberta Pujia , Roberta Zito , Simona Gigliotti , Giorgio Sesti and Francesco Perticone. Ketogenic Diet-Induced Weight Loss is Associated with an Increase in Vitamin D Levels in Obese Adults. Molecules 2019, 24, 2499.1-12.
. P.E. Penson, D.L. Long, G. Howard, P.P. Toth, P. Muntner, V.J. Howard, M.M. Safford, S.R. Jones, S.S. Martin, M. Mazidi, A.L. Catapano, M. Banach, Associations between very low concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and health outcomes in the Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, Eur. Heart J.2018.39. 3641–3653.
. R.M. Krauss, P.J. Blanche, R.S. Rawlings, H.S. Fernstrom, P.T. Williams, Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006. 83.1025–1031.
. J. Sackner-Bernstein, D. Kanter, S. Kaul, Dietary intervention for overweight and obese adults: comparison of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets. A Meta-Analysis, PLoS One.2015.7.12-19.
. P.R. Schauer, D.L. Bhatt, J.P. Kirwan, et al., Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy for diabetes — 5-year outcomes, N. Engl. J. Med. 2017. 376.641–651.
. N.H. Bhanpuri, S.J. Hallberg, P.T. Williams, et al., Cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to a type 2 diabetes care model including nutritional ketosis induced by sustained carbohydrate restriction at 1 year: an open label, non-randomized, controlled study, Cardiovasc. Diabetol. 2018.17.56.
. Marco Castellana1 & Eleonora Conte1 & Angelo Cignarelli1 & Sebastio Perrini1 & Andrea Giustina & et al. Efficacy and safety of very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. 2019.1.1-12
. A Paoli1, A Rubini1, JS Volek and KA Grimaldi. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition .2013. 67, 789–796.
. Pierpaolo Trimbol & Marco Castellana & Diego Bellido & Felipe F. Casanueva. Confusion in the nomenclature of ketogenic diets blurs evidence. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. 2020.3.1-4.
. Thomas DD, Istfan NW, Bistrian BR, ApovianCM. Protein sparing therapies in acute illness and obesity: a review of George Blackburn's contributions to nutrition science. Metabolism. 2018;79:83–96.
. Ludwing DS. The ketogenic diet: evidence for optimism but highquality research needed. J Nutr.2019; 15: 78-90
. Caprio M, InfanteM,Moriconi E, Armani A, Fabbri A,Mantovani G, et al. Cardiovascular Endocrinology Club of the Italian Society of Endocrinology. Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in the management of metabolic diseases: systematic review and consensus statement from the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). J Endocrinol Invest. 2019;42(11):1365–86.
. Stubbs BJ, Newman JC. Ketogenic diet and adipose tissue inflammation– a simple story? Fat chance!Nature Metabolism. 2020;2:3–4.
. Abbasi J. Interest in the Ketogenic Diet Grows for Weight Loss and Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA. 2018: 16; 215-7.
. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio, Report of a WHO Expert Consultation" (PDF). World Health Organization. 8–11 December 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2012
. S Nymo, SR Coutinho, J Jørgensen, JF Rehfeld, H Truby, B Kulseng and C Martins. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet. International Journal of Obesity.2017;41, 1224–1231.
. Adriano Bruci 1, Dario Tuccinardi 2 , Rossella Tozzi 3 , Angela Balena, Silvia Santucci , Riccardo Frontani , Stefania Mariani , Sabrina Basciani 3, Giovanni Spera , Lucio Gnessi , Carla Lubrano ,y and Mikiko Watanabe . Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet: A Safe and Effective Tool for Weight Loss in Patients with Obesity and Mild Kidney Failure. Nutrients 2020, 12, 333.1-10
. Siraj ES, Williams KJ. another agent for obesity-will this time be different? N Engl J Med. 2015;373:82–3.
. Docherty, N.G.; Canney, A.L.; le Roux, C.W.Weight loss interventions and progression of diabetic kidney disease. Curr. Diab. Rep. 2015, 15, 55.
. Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D’Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1617–23.
. Ra_aella Longo, Carolina Peri, Dalma Cricrì, Lara Coppi, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Emma De Fabiani and Maurizio Crestani. Ketogenic Diet: A New Light Shining on Old but Gold Biochemistry. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2497.1-22
. Pellegrini M, Cioffi I, Evangelista A, Ponzo V, Goitre I, Ciccone G, Ghigo E, Bo S. Effects of time-restricted feeding on body weight and metabolism. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2020.5.12-19.
. P.O. Kwiterovich Jr., E.P. Vining, P. Pyzik, R. Skolasky Jr., J.M. Freeman, Effect of a high-fat ketogenic diet on plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in children, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2003.290. 912–920.
. Paoli, A.; Rubini, A.; Volek, J.S.; Grimaldi, K.A. Beyond weight loss: A review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013, 67, 789–796.
. Gibson AA, Seimon RV, Lee CM, Ayre J, Franklin J,Markovic TP, et al. Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015;16(1):64–76.
. Colica, C.; Merra, G.; Gasbarrini, A.; De Lorenzo, A.; Cioccoloni, G.; Gualtieri, P.; Perrone, M.A.; Bernardini, S.; Bernardo, V.; Di Renzo, L.; et al. E_cacy and safety of very-low-calorie ketogenic diet: a double blind randomized crossover study. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 2017, 21, 2274–2289.
. Alexandra M Johnstone, Graham W Horgan, Sandra D Murison, David M Bremner, and Gerald E Lobley. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:44 –55
. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA. Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004; 70: 243–251
. Bueno NB, de Melo IS, de Oliveira SL. A Rocha Ataide T. very low- carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:1178–87.
. Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Long-termeffects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):23–32.
. Hu FB. Calorie restriction in an obesogenic environment: reality or fiction? Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7(9):658–9.
. Moreno B, Crujeiras AB, Bellido D, Sajoux I, Casanueva FF. Obesity treatment by very low-calorie-ketogenic diet at two years: reduction in visceral fat and on the burden of disease. Endocrine.2016;54(3):681–90.
Copyright (c) 2021 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to reject the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.