Fighting Airborne Spread of COVID-19: An Innovative, Economical and Effective High Vacuum Extra Oral Dental Suction System (HVEDS) for Dental Practices
COVID-19 pandemic has led to a great deal of commentary about the airborne spread of the disease. It is of special concern for the dentists as most of the dental procedures generate significant amount of aerosols and droplets. Given such high risk and inevitable aerosol production in dentistry, special precautions and protective measures to ensure safe delivery of dental treatment is directed. To ensure negligence free dental practice, in addition to the standard protective procedures and measures, high vacuum extra oral dental suction system is a mandated dental armamentarium. Most commercially available vacuum aspirators are pricey and require special units with which they can work. In a country like Pakistan, where expensive armamentarium is neither available, nor easily affordable, we present an economical yet effective, high volume extra oral dental suction system for the dental offices which does not require heavy monetary investment. An in-house alternate to the commercially available extra oral aspirator is introduced here. We devised a make-shift extra oral aerosol aspirator which can be effortlessly assembled with the materials easily available around dental offices. When tried in use, the aerosol and spatter was eliminated through the cone-shaped oil key and collected into the collection bin as observed visually. The equipment, due to its high vacuum suction capability sucks the aerosol and splatter from the working area to the collection cone. Post COVID-19, we can expect a lot of changes in the infection control practices and guidelines. The use of extra oral vacuum aspiration along with the conventional protocol has been recommended to protect both the dental staff and the patients as the high vacuum extra oral aspirator may offer the way to reduce the generated aerosol particulate.
. Z. Ge, L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Fu and Y. Zhang. "Possible aerosol transmission of COVID-19 and special precautions in dentistry." Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE B, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 361-368, 2020. Available: 10.1631/jzus.b2010010 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. R. Watt. "COVID-19 is an opportunity for reform in dentistry." The Lancet, vol. 396, no. 10249, p. 462, 2020. Available: 10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31529-4 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. W. Kohn, A. Collins, J. Cleveland, J. Harte, K. Eklund and D. Malvitz. "Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings --- 2003." Cdc.gov, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5217a1.htm. [Accessed: 21- Sep- 2021].
. A. Pethani, R. Allana and M. Hussain. "Emerging Challenges and Threats for Dental Health Care Sector Attributable to COVID-19: Tale of a Developing Country." Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 278-280, 2020. Available: 10.1177/1010539520932708 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. A. Nulty, C. Lefkaditis, P. Zachrisson, Q. Van Tonder and R. Yar. "A clinical study measuring dental aerosols with and without a high-volume extraction device." British Dental Journal, 2020. Available: 10.1038/s41415-020-2274-3 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. "WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard", Covid19.who.int, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://covid19.who.int/. [Accessed: 21- Sep- 2021].
. M. Jayaweera, H. Perera, B. Gunawardana and J. Manatunge. "Transmission of COVID-19 virus by droplets and aerosols: A critical review on the unresolved dichotomy." Environmental Research, vol. 188, p. 109819, 2020. Available: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109819 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. "Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)." Who.int, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/report-of-the-who-china-joint-mission-on-coronavirus-disease-2019-(covid-19). [Accessed: 21- Sep- 2021].
. D. Mehta, P. Pulluri and S. Karibasappa. "Aerosol and splatter in Dentistry - An Overview." CODS Journal of Dentistry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 28-32, 2015. Available: 10.5005/cods-7-1-28 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. R. Scott Froum, "COVID-19 and the problem with dental aerosols." Perioimplantadvisory.com, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.perioimplantadvisory.com/periodontics/oral-medicine-anesthetics-and-oral-systemic-connection/article/14173521/covid19-and-the-problem-with-dental-aerosols. [Accessed: 21- Sep- 2021].
. G. Williams, N. Pollok, D. Shay and C. Barr. "Laminar Air Purge of Microorganisms in Dental Aerosols: Prophylactic Procedures with the Ultrasonic Scaler." Journal of Dental Research, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1498-1504, 1970. Available: 10.1177/00220345700490065701 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. S. Harrel and J. Molinari. "Aerosols and splatter in dentistry." The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 429-437, 2004. Available: 10.14219/jada.archive.2004.0207.
. R. Miller. "Characteristics of Blood-Containing Aerosols Generated by Common Powered Dental Instruments." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 670-676, 1995. Available: 10.1080/15428119591016683 [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. "Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for COVID-19." 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.osha.gov/sites/default/files/publications/OSHA3990.pdf. [Accessed: 21- Sep- 2021].
. R. Teanpaisan, M. Taeporamaysamai, P. Rattanachone, N. Poldoung and S. Srisintorn. "The usefulness of the modified extra-oral vacuum aspirator (EOVA) from household vacuum cleaner in reducing bacteria in dental aerosols." International Dental Journal, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 413-416, 2001. Available: 10.1002/j.1875-595x.2001.tb00853.x [Accessed 21 September 2021].
. C. D. Bentley, N. W. Burkhart, and J. J. Crawford. “Evaluating Spatter And Aerosol Contamination During Dental Procedures.” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 579–584, May 1994, doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.1994.0093.
. Junevicius, J. Surna, A. Surna, R. “Effectiveness evaluation of different suction systems.” Stomatologija. vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 52-57, 2005.
. Motegi. N. Ikegami, Y. Chiba, M. Asano, Y. “How much extra-oral suction (EOS) can prevent dental aerosols? Fluid dynamic analysis of aerosols with EOS.” Dent outlook, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 2010-2016, 2010.
. S. E. Chavis, S. E. Hines, D. Dyalram, N. C. Wilken, and R. N. Dalby. “Can extraoral suction units minimize droplet spatter during a simulated dental procedure?,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 157–165, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2020.10.010.
Copyright (c) 2021 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.